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Significant dates in the development of the M¨¦tis Nation

canoe-hopkins The M¨¦tis people emerge from the Fur Trade 1600s
Fur trade begins in earnest leading to the introduction of Europeans into what is now Canada.

1670
Royal Charter by the King of England establishes the Hudson¡¯s Bay Company (HBC).

1700s
Male employees and former employees without contract (freeman) of the fur trade companies begin to establish families with ¡°Indian¡± women. Ethnogenesis of distinct M¨¦tis communities hbc-crest The Coat of Arms of the Hudson's Bay Company along the waterway and around the Great Lakes?region of present day Ontario.?M¨¦tis in these areas are no longer seen as and do not see themselves as extensions of their maternal (First Nations) or paternal (European) relations, and begin to identify as a separate group.

1759
Battle of the Plains of Abraham established control by the British Crown to what becomes Canada, thus ending France¡¯s claim to its territory.

1763
Royal Proclamation formally sets out Crown's policy towards dealing with "Indian tribes" and approaches to land settlement.

nwc The Coat of Arms of the Northwest Company 1812
War primarily fought in the Great Lakes region sets in place what becomes the Canada-United States border. The M¨¦tis population forms the core foundation that establishes the site of present day Winnipeg. The HBC land grant to Lord Selkirk raises concern among the M¨¦tis and they are foreced from their lands.

1815-1828
Many M¨¦tis families move from Drummond Island to seven-oaks The Battle of Seven Oaks areas around Lake Huron, including, present day Kincardine, Owen Sound, Penetanguishene, Parry Sound, etc.

1816
La Victoire de la Grenouilli¨¨re,
also known as the Battle of Seven Oaks, occurs near the Red River Settlement after the HBC attempts to prohibit M¨¦tis from trading pemmican in the Northwest. Cuthbert Grant leads the M¨¦tis and Northwest Company (NWC) opposition.

1821
The long rivalry between the NWC and the HBC ends with amalgamation under the HBC banner. Layoffs grant Cuthbert Grant result and many former employees retire to Red River, Fort William, etc.

1832
M¨¦tis families in Penetanguishene petition for land grants in the region.

1849/50
M¨¦tis and First Nations from present day Sault Ste. Marie and along the north shore of Lake Superior object to the Quebec Mining Company trespass on their traditional lands at Mica Bay because there was traders M¨¦tis traders no treaty with the Crown in the territory. The company¡¯s agents surrender without resistance. This becomes known as the ¡®Mica Bay incident¡¯ and leads to the Robinson Treaties (Superior and Huron) between the Crown and ¡°Indians.¡± Treaty Commissioner Robinson states he has no mandate to deal with M¨¦tis.? As such, "M¨¦tis" title, rights and interests in the territory remain un-extinguished.

1851-1875
HBC pays ¡°Indians¡± and ¡°Halfbreeds¡± annuities under the treaties, as recorded in treaty annuity lists for the Lake Superior region.

ssm The early M¨¦tis community in Sault Ste. Marie 1867
The British North America Act is passed, creating the Dominion of Canada.

1869/70
The Dominion of Canada purchases Rupert¡¯s Land from the HBC. First Nations and M¨¦tis living in the expansive territory are not consulted. In response to Canada¡¯s attempts to survey its new purchase, the M¨¦tis at the Red River Settlement establish the Metis National Committee, effectively forming a provisional government. Canada is forced to enter into negotiations over terms for the creation of the province of Manitoba, which includes French language rights and specific promises for the provision of lands for? the M¨¦tis. Thomas Scott (an Orangeman from Ontario) is tried and executed by Riel, leading to resentment and riel Louis Riel anger from central Canada. The Manitoba Act is passed by the Parliament of Canada who also sends a military force from Ontario to advance westward expansion. The Ontario Government puts a $5000 bounty on Riel.

1875
The M¨¦tis at Rainy Lake (present day Fort Frances) successfully negotiate a ¡°Halfbreed¡± adhesion to Treaty 3, which was originally signed by ¡°Indians¡± in the Northwest Angle in 1873. This is the only time M¨¦tis are dealt with as a collective in one of the? historic treaties. After signing, Canada fails to fulfill the adhesion terms with ongoing attempts to make M¨¦tis in the region identify as ¡°Indians.¡±

dumont Gabriel Dumont 1880
M¨¦tis and ¡°Indians¡± around Lake Nipigon jointly petition Canada for education and land related issues.

1881-1885
In pursuit of the Canadian government¡¯s nationalist vision, the Canadian Pacific Railway is constructed? from Ontario to British Columbia, creating an influx of new settlers to western Canada and dramatically changing the economy and way of life of M¨¦tis on the Prairies.

1884/85
Prairie M¨¦tis feel ever increasing encroachment on their lands by new settlers with no land-based batoche The Battle of Batoche protections. M¨¦tis in Saskatchewan call on Louis Riel to press their concerns to Canada. Led by Gabriel Dumont at Duck Lake, the M¨¦tis engage the Northwest Mounted Police leaving twelve dead. Canada sends troops from central Canada to quell what the federal government perceives as an uprising, leaving many M¨¦tis dead. These dramatic events become known as the Northwest Resistance. For their roles, Louis Riel and other M¨¦tis and Indian leaders are arrested. Riel is tried and found guilty of treason, in an unfairly conducted trial. He is hung on November?monument2The monument in Queen's Park in Toronto dedicated to the Canadian
soldiers who?fought the M¨¦tis in 1885. It is an example of the?
backlash faced by M¨¦tis in Ontario.(Archives of Ontario)
16th, 1885 in Regina, as a message to the M¨¦tis and others who challenged Canada¡¯s western expansion goals.

1900s
In response to the public backlash from the events of 1885, many M¨¦tis in Ontario are disinclined to publicly self-identify. M¨¦tis families covertly continue to practice their culture and way of life throughout the province.

1905
M¨¦tis at Moose Factory petition to have their hunting rights recognized and be provided land grants.

constitution-act2 Section 35 of the Constitution Act 1982 recognized and?
affirmed?the Aboriginal rights?of M¨¦tis, First Nations
and Inuit people
1938
Alberta M¨¦tis secure a land base, which ultimately become known as the Alberta M¨¦tis Settlements.

1950s-1970s
M¨¦tis work with non-status Indians and other Aboriginal peoples, joining pan-Aboriginal lobby associations, to draw attention to deplorable living conditions in their communities and to advance Aboriginal rights and advance M¨¦tis interests within a broader Aboriginal agenda in Ontario and across Canada.

1981
Manitoba Metis Federation files claim against Canada and Manitoba for breach of fiduciary duty and failing to fulfill land related promises to the M¨¦tis following events of 1869/70. Supreme Court rules in favour of the M¨¦tis in 2013.

powley With his son Roddy, Steve Powley challenged Ontario's
hunting laws by asserting his M¨¦tis right to harvest
1982
As a result of the efforts of First Nations, Inuit and M¨¦tis people, their existing Aboriginal and Treaty rights are recognized and affirmed in s. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. M¨¦tis are recognized as one of Canada¡¯s three Aboriginal peoples.

1983
M¨¦tis begin to create M¨¦tis-specific governance structures to solely represent their rights and interests. At the national level, the M¨¦tis National Council (MNC) is established to represent the M¨¦tis Nation from Ontario westward.

1988
Implementation of the Sahtu Dene and Metis Comprehensive Agreement in Northwest Territories. media-scrum At the Supreme Court, the Powley case affirmed that M¨¦tis are a
distinct Aboriginal people with harvesting rights protected within?
Canada¡¯s Constitution
This represents the first time M¨¦tis are included in a modern day land claim agreement.

1993
The M¨¦tis Nation of Ontario (MNO) is established as a M¨¦tis-specific governance structure for Ontario M¨¦tis communities.? MNO establishes the first centralized registry of M¨¦tis citizens in the province, and joins the MNC.

1993
With the support of the MNO, Steve and Roddy Powley challenge Ontario¡¯s hunting laws. The court recognizes that the Powleys, as members of the M¨¦tis community in the Sault Ste. Marie region have a M¨¦tis right to hunt for food that is protected within s. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 and Ontario¡¯s hunting laws are inapplicable to them as M¨¦tis.

2003
In its first decision on M¨¦tis harvesting rights, the Supreme Court of Canada uphold the lower court decisions in the Powley case and affirms that M¨¦tis are a distinct Aboriginal people with harvesting rights protected within Canada¡¯s Constitution. The Powley case is a landmark ruling for M¨¦tis everywhere.

2004
MNO and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources reach an agreement to implement the Powley case in framework The MNO-Ontario Framework Agreement outlines the basis for?
future colloboration between the MNO and the Government of
Ontario
Ontario. The agreement recognizes the MNO Harvester¡¯s Card System, which entitles M¨¦tis harvesters to harvest within their traditional territories, similar to First Nations.

2008
MNO and the Government of Ontario sign a Framework Agreement recognizing the unique history and way of life of M¨¦tis communities in the province. The agreement sets the course for a new collaborative relationship in Ontario.

2010
The 125th anniversary of the Battle of Batoche is celebrated throughout the M¨¦tis Nation. Parliament as well as the legislature in Ontario and Saskatchewan recognize 2010 as the ¡°Year of the M¨¦tis¡±.

2010-2020
MNC declares the decade of the M¨¦tis.

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