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Click here to view a PDF document outlining the responses from each party.

In anticipation of the 2015 Federal Election, the M¨¦tis National Council (MNC) presented a list of questions to the political parties in order to determine their stand on M¨¦tis rights and issues. Below, you will find the list of questions followed by the answers each party submitted to the MNC.

To date, the Liberal, NDP and Green parties have responded. Other responses will be added as they are received.

An Ongoing Government to Government Relationship and Process

Will your party support legislation or other means to recognize the M¨¦tis Nation, its governing institutions and its right to govern itself under its own constitution?

Liberal
Canada must complete the unfinished work of Confederation by establishing a renewed Nation-to-Nation relationship with the M¨¦tis Nation, based on trust, respect and cooperation for mutual benefit. A Liberal government will work in partnership with the M¨¦tis Nation, on a Nation-to-Nation basis, to further M¨¦tis self-government.

NDP
Yes. Tom Mulcair and Canada¡¯s New Democrats recognize the right of the M¨¦tis people to self-government and have a deep commitment to developing Canada¡¯s Nation-to-Nation relationship with the M¨¦tis Nation. This will remain a constant priority for an NDP Government.

We feel it is time for a new era and a new federal government that embraces a true Nation-to-Nation relationship, built on respect and committed to making meaningful progress for M¨¦tis citizens. The NDP has a long history of fighting for the rights of Indigenous peoples, including M¨¦tis peoples, most notably illustrated by the insistence of the NDP and Ed Broadbent that Aboriginal Treaty Rights be enshrined in the Canadian Constitution.

Tom Mulcair and Canada¡¯s New Democrats believe that the current and previous federal governments have spent far too much time and energy fighting Indigenous peoples in court rather than seeking to build a respectful and meaningful partnership. If elected to form the next federal government we will work with the M¨¦tis peoples to support and further establish their institutions and rights.

Green
The Green Party is committed to honouring the rights of M¨¦tis, including the inherent right to self-government. We will swiftly implement The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) which delares that "Indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means to financing autonomous functions."

Consisted with UNDRIP, we will support legislation that recognizes the M¨¦tis Nation, its governing institutions and its right to govern itself under its own constitution.

Will your party establish a process at the Cabinet level to deal directly with the M¨¦tis Nation leadership on M¨¦tis Nation priorities (i.e. lands and resources, self-government and economic development)?

Liberal
As a matter of national priority, a Liberal government will develop a Federal Reconciliation Framework,
created in full partnership with Indigenous Peoples. This framework will include mechanisms to advance and strengthen self-government, advance land claims and resolve historic grievances. We will specifically work with M¨¦tis groups, as well as relevant provinces and territories, to establish a federal claims process that sets out a framework to address M¨¦tis rights protected by s. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, supporting M¨¦tis self-government, and resolve outstanding M¨¦tis claims against the Crown.

NDP
Yes. Tom Mulcair and the NDP have committed to establishing a cabinet- level committee chaired by the Prime Minister himself¡ªto ensure that all government decisions respect treaty rights, inherent rights and Canada¡¯s international obligations, starting with the principles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous peoples. Canada¡¯ New Democrats see this not just as the responsibility of one department but the duty of the entire Government of Canada.

Green
Greens will work to build a new, nation-to-nation partnership based on mutual respect and understanding with the M¨¦tis Nation. We will establish a process at the Cabinet level to deal directly with the M¨¦tis Nation leadership on M¨¦tis Nation priorities.

Greens will also work to transform the relationship between Ottawa and Indigenous peoples by establishing a Council of Canadian Governments. This body will meet regularly, bringing together governments representing the provinces, territories, municipalities, and Indigenous Peoples so that all parties will be able to work towards solutions to the challenges facing their people. For the first time, we will meaningfully engage M¨¦tis leadership as full partners in intergovernmental decisionmaking, for the good of all of us. The Council of Canadian Governments will restore a more cooperative federalism to Canada.

Will your party support an annual summit of the Prime Minister with M¨¦tis Nation leadership?

Liberal
As Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau will meet with M¨¦tis leaders each and every year of his government's mandate.

NDP
Yes. Tom Mulcair has, and will, meet regularly with the M¨¦tis Nation leadership to advance the Nation-to-Nation relationship. This will continue in his role as Prime Minister.

Green
Yes. The Prime Minister must meet directly with M¨¦tis Nation leadership.

Will your party support a biennial summit of the Prime Minister and the Premiers of the five westernmost Provinces with the M¨¦tis Nation?

Liberal
A Liberal government will ensure a renewed, Nation-to-Nation relationship between the federal government and the M¨¦tis Nation; recognize the M¨¦tis Nation as a full partner in the federation; and work with the M¨¦tis Nation to create fairness and equality of opportunity. We would also be open to working with the Metis Nation and relevant provincial governments to hold regular meetings to make progress on shared priorities.

NDP
Yes. Tom Mulcair and the NDP will support meaningful exchanges between the westernmost Founders of Confederation, including the provinces and the M¨¦tis Nation. The NDP believe that there is much to be gained by working together as partners and building a Nation-to-Nation relationship.

Green
Yes. This would be a requirement of a nation-to-nation relationship.

A Government to Government Fiscal Relationship

Will your?party commit to implementing a block funding agreement that will guarantee reliable and flexible?funding for the M¨¦tis Nation? Will your party commit to a funding formula based on the real costs of M¨¦tis Nation governance? Will your party commit to transfer payments that will enable M¨¦tis self-governing institutions to establish similar types of programs and services as those enjoyed by other Aboriginal peoples?

Liberal
The Liberal Party of Canada understands that none of our shared goals can be achieved under the status quo. Improving M¨¦tis quality of life requires distinct, and innovative approaches and a real partnership with M¨¦tis groups, as well as provinces and territories. A Liberal government is committed to working with our partners to achieve results for M¨¦tis children, youth, families and communities. A Liberal government will undertake a collaborative review, in partnership with M¨¦tis groups, of existing federal programs and services available to other Indigenous Peoples to identify gaps and areas where strategic investments are needed in order to improve M¨¦tis quality of life.

Further, we will make sure the Kelowna Accord ¨C and the spirit of reconciliation that drove it ¨C is embraced, and that its objectives are met, in line with today¡¯s challenges. A Liberal government will immediately reengage with the M¨¦tis Nation, as well as First Nations and Inuit communities, in a renewed, respectful, and inclusive Nation-to-Nation process to advance progress on critical issues such as housing, infrastructure, health and mental health care, community safety and policing, child welfare, economic opportunity, and education.

NDP
New Democrats, will initiate a review of all federal funding to the M¨¦tis organizations by the new Indigenous cabinet-level committee that will be chaired by the Prime Minister. As part of building a stable and long term
Nation-to-Nation relationship, Canada¡¯s New Democrats will work collaboratively to establish funding agreements, based on the costs of maintaining self- governing institutions and the services provided to M¨¦tis citizens.

Green
Yes. The Canadian Government must hold up its end of the Canada-MNC Governance and Financial Accountability Accord 2013.

Yes. Funding must be adequate and stable, based on the real costs of M¨¦tis Nation governance.

Yes. We will resotre the landmark Kelowna Accord, and the corresponding $5.1 billion commitment, to improve education, housing, health care, employment, and living conditions for all Indigenous peoples in Canada.

Economic Development

Will your party commit to supporting the renewal of M¨¦tis-specific Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy (ASETS) in 2017 and move them to an A based multi-year program?

Liberal
M¨¦tis individuals and communities face unique socio-economic issues and challenges based on their distinct histories, geographies and on-the-ground realities. A Liberal government will renew and expand funding by $50 million to the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy. This will include continuation of a distinctions- based approach, which respects the unique realities of First Nations, Inuit and the M¨¦tis in the delivery of these programs and services to their communities. The Liberal Party of Canada is committed to working with our M¨¦tis Nation partners to achieve results for M¨¦tis children, youth, families and communities and we look forward to an open and ongoing dialogue with the MNC about converting ASSETS to a permanent program. In addition, we will provide $25 million over 5 years to implement a M¨¦tis Economic Development Strategy, developed in partnership and consultation with Metis groups.

NDP
In order to advance opportunities for M¨¦tis youth and M¨¦tis businesses, an NDP government is committed to engaging in a collaborative process to review existing programming and funding as well as opportunities for economic development amongst M¨¦tis communities.

An NDP government will work with M¨¦tis organizations to plan and ensure the sustainability of the Aboriginal Skills and Training Strategy (ASETS) as a permanent program to provide skills training for M¨¦tis youth. In addition, an NDP government will engage the M¨¦tis Nation in discussions around federal support for educational initiatives such as strategically targeted bursaries and scholarships to help ensure that M¨¦tis youth have opportunities to attain their educational goals and career aspirations;

An NDP government will partner with M¨¦tis organizations to promote and support industry partnerships and economic opportunities for the M¨¦tis community, including through the use of Aboriginal Capital Corporations.

To identify new opportunities, an NDP government will review existing federal policies for resources development with the goal of updating and improving consultative processes and identifying opportunities for M¨¦tis participation and benefit, including skills development and training;

Finally, an NDP government will review federal policies for Aboriginal procurement in order to address and remove obstacles faced by M¨¦tis business owners and to improve access and opportunities to the bidding process.

Green
The Green Party supports the continuation of this highly successful program, and will work with the MNC to support skills training for M¨¦tis people. Programs like ASETS are most effective when they are implemented in close collaboration with stakeholders - like the MNC.

Will your party support performance based strategic investments in M¨¦tis educational, training and economic development institutions?

Liberal
M¨¦tis individuals and communities face unique socio-economic issues and challenges based on their distinct?histories, geographies and on-the-ground realities. A Liberal government will renew and expand funding by $50 million to the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy. This will include continuation of a distinctions- based approach, which respects the unique realities of First Nations, Inuit and the M¨¦tis in the delivery of these programs and services to their communities. The Liberal Party of Canada is committed toworking with our M¨¦tis Nation partners to achieve results for M¨¦tis children, youth, families and communities and we look forward to an open and ongoing dialogue with the MNC about converting ASSETS to a permanent program. In addition, we will provide $25 million over 5 years to implement a M¨¦tisEconomic Development Strategy, developed in partnership and consultation with Metis groups.

NDP
In order to advance opportunities for M¨¦tis youth and M¨¦tis businesses, an NDP government is committed to engaging in a collaborative process to review existing programming and funding as well as opportunities for economic development amongst M¨¦tis communities.

An NDP government will work with M¨¦tis organizations to plan and ensure the sustainability of the Aboriginal Skills and Training Strategy (ASETS) as a permanent program to provide skills training for M¨¦tis youth. In addition, an NDP government will engage the M¨¦tis Nation in discussions around federal support for educational initiatives such as strategically targeted bursaries and scholarships to help ensure that M¨¦tis youth have opportunities to attain theireducational goals and career aspirations;

An NDP government will partner with M¨¦tis organizations to promote and support industry partnerships and economic opportunities for the M¨¦tis community, including through the use of Aboriginal Capital Corporations.

To identify new opportunities, an NDP government will review existing federal policies for resources development with the goal of updating and improving consultative processes and identifying opportunities for M¨¦tis participation and benefit, including skills development and training;

Finally, an NDP government will review federal policies for Aboriginal procurement in order to address and remove obstacles faced by M¨¦tis business owners and to improve access and opportunities to the bidding process.

Green
Yes. The Green Party will use all tools at its disposal to promote and support industry partnerships with the M¨¦tis. We will invest in education and skills training, to ensure that M¨¦tis youth and adults, and their communities, reach their full economic potential.

Will your party support adequate resourcing for the MNC and its Governing Members to participate effectively in the implementation of the M¨¦tis Economic Development Accord?

Liberal
As referenced above, a Liberal government will work with M¨¦tis groups and existing M¨¦tis financial institutions to develop a M¨¦tis Economic Development Strategy that identifies strategic federal investments that can be made to enhance M¨¦tis entrepreneurship as well as M¨¦tis participation in business development and economic growth. We would also provide $25 million of funding over 5 years to implement this new strategy.

NDP
In order to advance opportunities for M¨¦tis youth and M¨¦tis businesses, an NDP government is committed to engaging in a collaborative process to review existing programming and funding as well as opportunities for economic development amongst M¨¦tis communities.

An NDP government will work with M¨¦tis organizations to plan and ensure the sustainability of the Aboriginal Skills and Training Strategy (ASETS) as a permanent program to provide skills training for M¨¦tis youth. In addition, an NDP government will engage the M¨¦tis Nation in discussions around federal support for educational initiatives such as strategically targeted bursaries and scholarships to help ensure that M¨¦tis youth have opportunities to attain theireducational goals and career aspirations;

An NDP government will partner with M¨¦tis organizations to promote and support industry partnerships and economic opportunities for the M¨¦tis community, including through the use of Aboriginal Capital Corporations.

To identify new opportunities, an NDP government will review existing federal policies for resources development with the goal of updating and improving consultative processes and identifying opportunities for M¨¦tis participation and benefit, including skills development and training;

Finally, an NDP government will review federal policies for Aboriginal procurement in order to address and remove obstacles faced by M¨¦tis business owners and to improve access and opportunities to the bidding process.

Green
Yes.

M¨¦tis s. 35 Rights

Will your party support negotiations with the MNC and its Governing Members directed toward agreements on?these matters that could be constitutionally protected? Will your party commit to adequate resourcing of the MNC and its Governing Members to participate in M¨¦tis s.35 rights reconciliation discussions?

Liberal
The unique rights and claims of the M¨¦tis people require the federal government¨Din collaboration with M¨¦tis groups, the provinces and the territories¨Dto meaningfully engage, negotiate and reach just and lasting settlements with M¨¦tis communities. This is essential to how reconciliation with the M¨¦tis people will finally be meaningfully advanced and achieved.

As noted above, a Liberal government will work with M¨¦tis groups, as well as necessary provinces and territories, to establish a federal claims process that sets out a framework to address M¨¦tis rights protected by s. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, supporting M¨¦tis self-government as well as resolve outstanding M¨¦tis claims against the Crown.

NDP
Tom Mulcair and Canada¡¯s New Democrats recognize the right of the M¨¦tis people to selfgovernment and have a deep commitment to developing Canada¡¯s Nation-to-Nation relationship with the M¨¦tis Nation. This will remain a constant priority for an NDP Government.

We feel it is time for a new era and a new federal government that embraces a true Nation-to-Nation relationship, built on respect and committed to making meaningful progress for M¨¦tis citizens. The NDP has a long history of fighting for the rights of Indigenous peoples, including M¨¦tis peoples, most notably illustrated by the insistence of the NDP and Ed Broadbent that Aboriginal Treaty Rights be enshrined in the Canadian Constitution.

Tom Mulcair and Canada¡¯s New Democrats believe that current and previous federal governments have spent far too much time and energy fighting Indigenous peoples in court rather than seeking to build a respectful and meaningful partnership.

If elected to form the next federal government we will work with the M¨¦tis peoples to establish a process to address the inadequate protection of M¨¦tis rights by previous federal governments, including legally establish Aboriginal rights, M¨¦tis land claims and other inherent rights as Indigenous peoples. Our commitment to right the wrongs of the past includes a commitment to support and further establish their M¨¦tis institutions and self-government.

Green
Yes. The federal government must recognize and implement the right of M¨¦tis people to self-government and lands and resources.

True reconciliation will take time, and while we work to build a new, nation-to-nation partnership based on mutual respect and understanding, there are urgent and important steps that must be taken by the federal government to put the relationship on firmer footing. We begin by recognizing indigenous rights and title, and will negotiate in good faith to settle land claims, establish treaties and selfgovernment arrangements.

Yes. In order to engage as equal partners in these nation-to-nation negotiations, the MNC and its Governing Members need adequate resourcing.

Settlement of Manitoba M¨¦tis Land Claim

Will your party commit to a settlement of the Manitoba M¨¦tis land claim that was the subject of the Supreme Court?of Canada declaration in MMF v Canada in a manner consistent with other contemporary land claims agreements?

Liberal
A Liberal government will immediately establish a negotiations process between Canada and the Manitoba M¨¦tis Federation in order to settle the outstanding land claim of the Manitoba M¨¦tis Community as recognized by the Supreme Court of Canada in Manitoba M¨¦tis Federation v. Canada.

The unique rights and claims of the M¨¦tis people require the federal government, in collaboration with M¨¦tis Nation groups, the provinces and the territories to meaningfully engage, negotiate and reach just and lasting settlements with M¨¦tis communities. This is essential to how reconciliation with the M¨¦tis people will finally be meaningfully advanced and achieved.

NDP
Canada's New Democrats find it regrettable that the Manitoba M¨¦tis Federation was forced to spend years in court to establish what everyone already knew: that the federal government never delivered on the promise it made 140 years ago under s. 31 of the Manitoba Act of 1870. Canada's New Democrats are committed to supporting constructive negotiations in good faith to ensure that justice in this case is not delayed any further.

Green
Yes. The Green Party welcomes the 2013 Supreme Court recognition of the need for a remedy to the unresolved land claim of the Manitoba M¨¦tis Community. The federal government must now sit down with the Manitoba M¨¦tis Federation to renegotiate the original, unfulfilledagreement to ensure that Manitoba M¨¦tis people are compensated fairly.

This should be a model for other land claims agreements.

Residential Schools and Missing and Murdered M¨¦tis Women

Will your party commit to compensation for the survivors of the M¨¦tis residential school at ?le-¨¤-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan and other such M¨¦tis residential schools?

Liberal
The Liberal Party of Canada is committed to healing the tragic legacy and intergenerational trauma caused by this cultural genocide. We will work with survivors and Indigenous communities to implement all 94 recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, including working collaboratively with plaintiffs not included in the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to resolve outstanding legal issues expeditiously. We will also engage in an open and meaningful dialogue with the survivors of the M¨¦tis residential and day schools, as well as M¨¦tis organizations, to facilitate justice and healing for all those impacted by this dark chapter in Canadian history.

NDP
Canada¡¯s New Democrats have publicly called upon the Harper government not to drag out the court case with the survivors of day schools who suffered some of the same abuse and indignities that residential school survivors did. We recognize that the M¨¦tis community has been excluded from elements of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. An NDP federal government would recognize this fact and work with M¨¦tis survivors to take steps toward reconciliation and healing including through the negotiation of a settlement.

Canada¡¯s New Democrats have committed to call a national inquiry into the issue of the 1,200 missing and murdered Indigenous women within our first 100 days in government and will ensure that this process includes the distinct perspectives of M¨¦tis women.

Green
Yes. The Green Party recognizes that the process of Truth and Reconciliation is incomplete without acknowledging the experience of the M¨¦tis people and compensation for M¨¦tis survivors.

Will your party support a National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls?

Liberal
A Liberal government will immediatly launch a national public inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls in Canada. An inquiry would seek to recommend concrete actions that governments, law enforcement, and others can take to solve these crimes and prevent future ones. We will take meaningful action to deal with the root causes of this national tragedy.

NDP
Canada¡¯s New Democrats have publicly called upon the Harper government not to drag out the court case with the survivors of day schools who suffered some of the same abuse and indignities that residential school survivors did. We recognize that the M¨¦tis community has been excluded from elements of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. An NDP federal government would recognize this fact and work with M¨¦tis survivors to take steps toward reconciliation and healing including through the negotiation of a settlement.

Canada¡¯s New Democrats have committed to call a national inquiry into the issue of the 1,200 missing and murdered Indigenous women within our first 100 days in government and will ensure that this process includes the distinctperspectives of M¨¦tis women.

Green
The ongoing crisis of missing and murdered Indigenous women must be met with urgent action. We will launch a national inquiry and fight to ensure that structural violence against indigenous communities is addressed. The violence faced by Indigenous women and girls in Canada is a national disgrace. That the Harper Conservatives have refused to even open an inquiry compounds our shame. At least 1181 Indigenous women have been murdered or have gone missing in the last 30 years. 225 of these cases remain unsolved. We must confront and undo the legacy of racism and colonialism that underpins these acts of violence. We owe it to the victims and their families to use every tool we have to investigate this serious and systemic problem, and solve it. We cannot leave Indigenous women and girls at risk out of an aversion to ¡°committing sociology,¡± as the Prime Minister put it. Indigenous communities in Canada have called for this inquiry and it is the duty of the federal government to open it.

Will your party ensure that distinct perspectives and concerns of M¨¦tis women expressed by the Women of the M¨¦tis Nation are an integral part of efforts to end violence against Aboriginal women and girls?

Liberal
The process by which the national inquiry will be established will be fully inclusive and empowered to bring justice for the victims, healing for their families, and help to deliver a plan of action to put an end to this ongoing national tragedy. Women of the M¨¦tis Nation would be meaningfully engaged as part of that process.

NDP
Canada¡¯s New Democrats have publicly called upon the Harper government not to drag out the court case with the survivors of day schools who suffered some of the same abuse and indignities that residential school survivors did. We recognize that the M¨¦tis community has been excluded from elements of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. An NDP federal government would recognize this fact and work with M¨¦tis survivors to take steps toward reconciliation and healing including through the negotiation of a settlement.

Canada¡¯s New Democrats have committed to call a national inquiry into the issue of the 1,200 missing and murdered Indigenous women within our first 100 days in government and will ensure that this process includes the distinctperspectives of M¨¦tis women.

Green
Yes. The voices of M¨¦tis women must be an essential part of efforts to end violence against Aboriginal women and girls.